RFID Technology for Tracking and Identification Systems
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that employs electronic labeling using radio waves. The fundamental concept involves small devices known as tags, which are attached to objects for identification purposes. These tags store information that can be wirelessly read by a compatible device using radio waves. RFID tags can be either passive, without a power source, or active, featuring an integrated battery. Unlike traditional barcodes, RFID technology offers faster and non-line-of-sight reading capabilities, allowing simultaneous scanning of multiple tags and modification of information stored in them.
The roots of RFID technology date back to 1948 when it was initially utilized by armies for single-value identification, distinguishing between friendly and enemy aircraft and calculating their distances. In the 1980s, the technology witnessed a breakthrough with smaller and more affordable tags, enabling mass production for American and European markets. Standardization occurred in the 1990s, and by 2005, major retailers like Walmart began leveraging RFID for inventory services.
Method of Work
An RFID system comprises a tag, a reader, and an information management system. The tag consists of a chip and an antenna that utilizes electromagnetic waves from the reader as an energy source for sending and receiving information. The reader, in turn, captures and processes this information, establishing a bidirectional communication with the tag.
Types of RFID Tags
1. Passive Tag:
No internal power source; activated by the reader's electromagnetic field.
2. Active Tag:
Features an internal battery, capable of transmitting data without relying on the reader's electromagnetic field. Offers greater range and memory.
3. Semi-passive Tag:
Similar to passive tags but uses a small battery for constant charging and chip operation. Communication occurs due to the reader's electromagnetic field.
RFID operates in three main frequency ranges:
Low frequency (125-134 KHz)
High frequency (13.56 MHz)
Ultra-high frequency (840-960 MHz)
The reading range of passive tags varies with frequency:
● Low frequency: 3 to 30 centimeters
● High frequency: One meter
● Ultra-high frequency: 3 to 12 meters
The effective reading range for active tags is typically around 100 meters.
RFID can be applied across various sectors:
Tracking food products from production to delivery, ensuring safety regulations and timely shipments.
Capturing data from machines, reducing the need for manual labor and enhancing efficiency.
Tracking components and products throughout the supply chain to improve efficiency and reduce costs.
Preventing tampering with medicines during manufacturing and shipping processes.
Tracking inventory locations to prevent overstock and optimize warehouse-to-storefront flow.
Usage for RTLS (Real-Time Location Systems)
Implementing RFID technology for location tracking involves placing RFID readers in known locations and mapping their service areas. This allows for tracking the movement of RFID-tagged assets within the defined service area cells.
Small and Inexpensive Tags:
The cost-effectiveness and compact size of RFID tags enable widespread scalability and attachment to even very small objects.
RFID tags function reliably in dusty and challenging environments.
Real-Time Location Limitations:
RFID provides information on the presence of tags within the reader's service space but does not offer continuous real-time location tracking.
Due to reading range limitations, achieving effective surface cell coverage requires a significant deployment of readers.
In conclusion, RFID technology has evolved significantly, enabling some sort of tracking and identification systems across various industries. While it offers advantages such as scalability and robustness, considerations regarding real-time location and coverage limitations should be taken into account for optimal implementation.